The idea of European border guards has been debated at an EU level since the early 2000s (see the Statewatch Analysis from when this project was in its infancy). The European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union - or Frontex for short - was established by Regulation 2004/2007.
Calls from the Agency (for more autonomy), criticisms from human rights organisations (regarding transparency, misconduct of border guards and violation of migrants' rights) and demands from some Member States (asking for a more powerful agency) led to the amendment of Regulation 2004/2007 with the adoption of complementary Regulation 1168/2011.
Frontex's legal basis was updated once more with Regulation (EU) 2016/1624, re-launching the agency as the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (EBCGA). In 2019 this regulation was recast and the agency is now governed by Regulation (EU) 2019/1896 (see the legal basis section for more information).
The documentation contained in this section traces the development of the agency since 2004. Documents are categorised according to their discussion of the following operational topics:
Spotted an error? If you've spotted a problem with this page, just click once to let us know.
Statewatch does not have a corporate view, nor does it seek to create one, the views expressed are those of the author. Statewatch is not responsible for the content of external websites and inclusion of a link does not constitute an endorsement. Registered UK charity number: 1154784. Registered UK company number: 08480724. Registered company name: The Libertarian Research & Education Trust. Registered office: c/o MDR, 88 Fleet Street, London EC4Y 1DH, UK. © Statewatch ISSN 1756-851X. Personal usage as private individuals "fair dealing" is allowed. We also welcome links to material on our site. Usage by those working for organisations is allowed only if the organisation holds an appropriate licence from the relevant reprographic rights organisation (eg: Copyright Licensing Agency in the UK) with such usage being subject to the terms and conditions of that licence and to local copyright law.