Frontex was established by EU Regulation 2004/2007. As the importance and the involvement of the Agency grew, limits to the initial mandate were identified, including too heavy a reliance on Member States' technical contributions and the need for stronger human rights safeguards, especially with respect to operations at sea. Regulation 2004/2007 was therefore amended by Regulation 1168/2011.
Frontex's legal basis was updated once more with Regulation (EU) 2016/1624, re-launching the agency as the European Border and Coast Guard Agency (EBCGA). In 2019 the regulation was recast and the agency is now governed by Regulation (EU) 2019/1896.
Note that the European Court of Justice annulled the Council Decision supplementing the Schengen Borders Code in 2012 (See Judgement), which was replaced by the Frontex Sea Borders Regulation 656/2014 in May 2014.
Council of the European Union: Feasibility study for the setting up of the "European Border Police" - final report (Odysseus Programme)
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