14 October 2021
Document selection for Yasha Maccanico’s PhD at the University of Bristol’s School for Policy Studies in cooperation with Statewatch (ESRC, SWDTP). Title: European Immigration Policies as a Problem: State Power and Authoritarianism. The development of immigration policy as a means of asserting state power in the EU and its member states. (November 2019)
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European Immigration Policies as a Problem: State Power and Authoritarianism.
The development of immigration policy as a means of asserting state power in the EU and its member states.
This PhD thesis addresses JHA aspects of European immigration policies (external border controls and activities to counter illegal migration) as crucial to the development of the EU’s Area of Freedom, Security and Justice (AFSJ). Using Jessop’s strategic-relational approach to state power (2016) and Bacchi’s approach to analysing problem representation in public policy (2009), this research investigates developments in this policy field at the EU level and at the national level in Italy and the UK over twenty years to identify and explain their dynamics and their structural and systemic effects. This research views the EU as an ambitious and sophisticated state-building exercise whose stages are well documented, using extensive documentation from the EU and national levels to answer its research questions:
1) In what ways have the JHA aspects of immigration policy formulation and implementation in the EU, Italy and the UK exceeded the remit of migration control?
2) If so, why and how is this happening?
3) What are the consequences of these shifts in terms of authoritarianism?
4) Are immigration policies creating more problems than they are solving?
The answers are provided by focusing on the strategic biases and modes of intervention which apply to immigration policy formulation and implementation, including the promotion of hierarchical relations, the assertion of state power and an intensification in its reach and effects for the people it targets and beyond. The PhD’s main finding is that the structural and systemic effects of immigration policies at the EU and national levels are more geared to creating series of problems to justify state intervention and the expansion of state power(s), capabilities and structures than to solving a problem. JHA aspects of immigration policies are currently a threat for migrants and for European societies, because their expansive effects undermine other positive values and normative frameworks.
Policy Plans to establish and develop the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice
PP1 Tampere European Council Presidency Conclusions
PP2 The Hague Programme: Strengthening Freedom, Security and Justice in the European Union
PP3 The Stockholm Programme: An Open and Secure Europe Serving and Protecting Citizens
NLUK1 Immigration and Asylum Act 1999
NLUK2 Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002
NLUK3 Borders, Citizenship and Immigration Act 2009, 21 July 2009
NLUK4 Immigration Act 2014
NLIT1 Turco-Napolitano law, Legge 6 marzo 1998, no. 40
NLIT2 Bossi-Fini law, Legge 30 luglio 2002, no. 189
NLIT3 Legge 15 luglio 2009, no. 94 (security package)
NLIT4 Legge 2 Agosto 2011, no. 129 (reception of European norms)
EUD1 Council Regulation no. 2317/95 of 25 September 1995 (visa list)
EUD2 Council Recommendation of 22 December 1995 (combating illegal migration)
EUD3 Council Recommendation of 22 December 1995 (expulsions)
EUD4 Council Resolution of 26 June 1997 (unaccompanied minors)
EUD5 Council Resolution of 4 December 1997 (marriages of convenience)
EUD6 Presidency Conclusions-JHA—Cardiff
EUD7 Council Regulation (EC) no. 2725/2000 of 11 December 2000 (Eurodac)
EUD8 EU/ACP Partnership Agreement, Cotonou, 23 June 2000
EUD9 Council Directive 2001/51/EC of 28 June 2001 (carrier sanctions)
EUD10 Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament on a common policy on illegal migration
EUD11 Council Regulation (EC) no. 407/2002 of 28 February 2002 (Eurodac rules)
EUD12 Council Directive 2002/90/EC of 28 November 2002 (facilitation)
EUD13 Council Regulation (EC) no. 343/2003 of 18 February 2003 (asylum responsibility)
EUD14 Presidency conclusions, Brussels 12–13 December 2003, “III. Freedom, Security and Justice”
EUD15 Council Regulation (EC) no. 2007/2004 of 26 October 2004 (Frontex)
EUD16 Communications from the Commission. A Strategy on the External Dimension of the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice.
EUD17 Annex I: Global Approach to Migration: Priority Actions Focusing on Africa and the Mediterranean
EUD18 Regulation (EC) No 562/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 15 March 2006 (Schengen Borders Code)
EUD19 2008 Council Conclusions annex-European Pact on Immigration and Asylum.
EUD20 Directive 2008/115/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 (Returns Directive)
EUD21 Regulation (EU) No. 265/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 25 MarchCouncil Presidency Note to delegations on an effective EU returns policy 2010 (long stay visas)
EUD22 Regulation (EU) No 439/2010 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 May 2010 (EASO)
EUD23 Communication from the Commission, The Global Approach to Migration and Mobility
EUD24 Regulation (EU) No. 1052/2013 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2013, (Eurosur)
EUD25 Council Presidency Note to delegations on an effective EU returns policy
EUD26 Council conclusions on EU Return Policy, Justice and Home Affairs Council meeting, Luxembourg, 5 and 6 June 2014
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