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Frontex has been characterised since its creation as a very pro-active Agency, and has frequently adjusted its operational activities to its ambitious understanding of border management. This has often led to it operating on the fringe of its mandate. This has been identified by civil society organisations, researchers and institutional monitoring bodies, all of which have expressed concern about the legality of some of Frontex's practices as well as about their impact upon civil liberties and fundamental rights.

This section is divided into several sub-sections:
Statewatch
17/02/2014 Statewatch News: Seeing through trees: Frontex commissions study on "solutions for under-foliage detection"
17/02/2014 Statewatch News: Frontex: Parliament demands greater scrutiny of "financial management and internal controls"
12/02/2014 Statewatch/TNI report: Eurodrones, Inc. by Ben Hayes, Chris Jones & Eric Töpfer

Chapter 6 of the report examines Frontex's interest in drones, optionally-piloted aircraft and other technologies for aerial surveillance of the EU's borders.

Full report (pdf)
Executive summary (pdf)
Press release: English | Dutch | German | Italian | Spanish (pdfs)
Eurodrones webpage
07/2013 Statewatch News: Commission launches study on the possible creation of a "European System of Border Guards" to be operated by Frontex
07/2013 Statewatch News: EU seeks increased surveillance of travel and social media to deal with "foreign fighters"
11/06/2013 Leila Giannetto, The borders of accountability: The case of Frontex: Thesis submitted for Laurea Magistrale in European and International Studies at the University of Trento, Italy: Summary - Full thesis - Presentation
29/05/2013 Statewatch News: Frontex: "optionally-piloted" aircraft tests, but no drones... yet
23/05/2103 Statewatch News: EU policy on irregular migration is "fundamentally at odds with the human rights approach"
10/05/2013 Statewatch News: Field testing: CLOSEYE project puts drones over the Mediterranean
30/04/2013 Statewatch News: Aerial surveillance at the Greece-Turkey border: Frontex wants to buy a plane
04/2013 Marie Martin: “If at first you don’t succeed”...European Commission proposes new rules on interception and disembarkation during Frontex sea operations
03/2013 Marie Martin: Trust in Frontex: The 2013 work programme
10/2012 Chris Jone: Secretive Frontex Working Group seeks to increase surveillance of travellers (originally published in Statewatch journal volume 22/3)
24/10/2012 Marie Martin: Criticism mounts of Frontex's operations at sea - “I try to avoid giving the impression I’m somehow sneaking out of the responsibility”,  Frontex’s Executive Director on search and rescue at sea
27/09/2012 FRONTEX Fundamental Rights Strategy: Statewatch and Migreurop’s joint submission to the Ombudsman of the European Union (available also in French)
08/2012 Italy buys helicopters through Frontex (see p.3 of this document)
15/05/2012 Statewatch: A drop of fundamental rights in an ocean of unaccountability: Frontex in the process of implementing Article 26(a)
09/05/2012 Statewatch: ECJ General Advocate’s opinion on sea surveillance and the Schengen Borders Code: reasserting the Parliament’s legislative role, re-opening the Frontex debate?
03/2012 Member States and "friends" gear up for "smart borders"
03/2012  The reinforcement of Frontex and the intensification of cooperation with third countries
09/2011 Yasha Maccanico: The EU’s self-interested response to unrest in north Africa: the meaning of treaties and readmission agreements between Italy and north African states, Statewatch Bulletin 21 (3)
09/2011 Marie Martin: The Arab Spring and the death toll in the Mediterranean: the true face of Fortress Europe, Statewatch Bulletin 21 (3)
07/2011 Proposal for a Regulation amending Council Regulation (EC) No 2007/2004 establishing a European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (Frontex) - Analysis of the final compromise text with the view to agreement, by Steve Peers, Professor or Law, University of Essex
07/2011 The Frontex Regulation – Consolidated text after 2011 amendments, Steve Peers, Professer of Law (University of Essex)
06/2010 Tony Bunyan: EU: First thoughts on the EU's internal security strategy, Statewatch Bulletin 20 (2)
03/2010 Statewatch: Surveillance of the sea external borders with the involvement of Frontex: the LIBE Committee opposes the adoption of the European Commission Draft Council decision
09/2009 Vassilis Tsianos: Notes on the high-tech industry of European Border Control: migration control and the arms industry in EU security research policy, Statewatch Bulletin 19 (3)
11/2003 Ben Hayes: Cover-up! Proposed Regulation on European Border Guard hides unaccountable, operational bodies
05/2002 Steve Peers, Professor of Law (University of Essex): European Commission: EU Border Control Communication
Meijers Committee
05/2013 Note on the Proposal for a Regulation establishing rules for the surveillance of external sea borders in the context of operational cooperation coordinated by Frontex
26/09/2012 Note on the Proposal for a Regulation establishing rules for the surveillance of external sea borders in the context of operational cooperation coordinated by Frontex
26/09/2012 Public consultation on Frontex and fundamental rights
20/09/2011 Proposal for a Regulation amending the Schengen Borders Code (COM(2011)118 final)
04/04/2008 Views on the Commission report on the evaluation and future development of the Frontex agency
06/11/2007 Proposal to give law enforcement authorities access to Eurodac
Migreurop
27/09/2012 EU: FRONTEX Fundamental Rights Strategy: Statewatch and Migreurop’s joint submission to the Ombudsman of the European Union (available also in French)
20/04/2012 New Group Deportation Flight Coordinated by FRONTEX as means of Collective Expulsion towards Serbia : Rights violation and the impunity of member-states, Joint press release by Migreurop, Chachipe, ROM e.V. Köln, Flüchtlingsrat Niedersachen, Roma Center Göttingen, European Network Against Racism (ENAR) (also available in French, Serbian, Spanish)
13/03/2012 Germany-Serbia : another charter flight to Serbia organised by FRONTEX (also available in German, French, Serbian, Spanish, Italian)
02/2012 At the margins of Europe: the externalisation of border controls
14/11/2011 Press release: Our ideas are much better than your destructive policies
05/2011 Study conducted by Migreurop on the European External Borders Agency in view of the revision of its mandate (commissioned by the Greens-EFA group at the European Parliament) - Frontex Agency: Which Guarantees for Human Rights?
10/2010 European borders - controls, detention and deportation
United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
10/2010 UNHCR’s observations on the European Commission’s proposal for a Regulation of the European Parliament and the Council amending Council Regulation (EC) No 2007/2004 establishing a European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (Frontex), COM(2010)61 final
Human rights violations / Human rights aspects
24/04/2013
Caritas Europa comments on the second draft of the Joint Return Operation code of conduct
03/2013 Aoiefe Spengeman, Upholding the Legitimacy of Frontex: European Parliamentary Oversight, European Security Review
01/01/2013 'An Introduction to Frontex: Human Rights' by N.Perowski, in Fahamu Refugee Legal Aid Network's Newsletter (Issue 33). Third article of a series of three, see article 1 (November 2012) and 2 (December 2012)
01/12/2012 'An Introduction to Frontex: Frequent Criticism" by N.Perowski, in Fahamu Refugee Legal Aid Network's Newsletter (Issue 32). Second article of a series of three, see article 1 (November 2012)
31/10/2012 'An Introduction to Frontex: Its Foundations and Developments' by N.Perowski, in Fahamu Refugee Legal Aid Network's Newsletter (Issue 31). First article of a series of three (see above)
04/10/2012 'Hirsi Jamaa and Others v Italy or the Strasbourg Court versus Extraterritorial Migration Control?' by V. Moreno-Lax, in Human Rights Law Review 12(3)
28/09/2012 Trans Europe Expert (doc. in French): Réponse à la consultation pour l’enquête d’initiative lancée sur le respect par l’Agence Frontext de ses obligations relatives aux droits fondamentaux - OI/5/2012/BEH-MHZ
26/09/2012 ILPA (Immigration Law Practitioner's Association): Submission to the public consultation by the European Ombudsman on Frontex and Fundamental Rights
18/09/2012 Caritas Europa: Letter to the EU Ombudsman regarding Frontex's Fundamental Rights Strategy
05/09/2012 Luisa Marin: Policing the EU's External Borders: A Challenge for the Rule of Law and Fundamental Rights in the Area of Freedom, Security and Justice? An Analysis of Frontex Joint Operations at the Southern Maritime Border, Journal of Contemporary European Research 7(4) pp. 468-487 (article sent to the European Ombudsman in the context of his inquiry on Frontex)
17/08/2012 "Comments in relation to your public inquiry into the implementation by Frontex of its fundamental rights obligation" by A.Fotiadis
06/08/2012 Human Rights Watch: Letter to the European Ombudsman regarding the implementation by Frontex of its fundamental rights obligations
02/08/2012 Jesuit Refugee Service Europa: Letter to the EU Ombudsman regarding Frontex's Fundamental Rights Strategy
24/07/2012 "Important opinion on Frontex and human rights", by G.Habib
20/07/2012 "Enhancing Frontex's role and improving the consideration for fundamental rights", section 2 of MA's dissertation, by P.G. Van Wolleghem
01/07/2012 Stefanie Grant: Refugee and migrant protection at sea: lessons from the Mediterranean, Fahamu Refugee Legal Aid Newsletter
04/04/2012 Chachipe: Selective Freedom The Visa Liberalisation and Rest rictions on the Right to Travel in the Balkans
09/2011 Human Rights Watch: The EU’s Dirty Hands Frontex Involvement in Ill-Treatment of Migrant Detainees in Greece
08/2011 Implementation of the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and its Impact on EU Home Affairs Agencies. Frontex, Europol and the European Asylum Support Office, study by Elspeth Guild, Sergio Carrera, Leonhard den Hertog, and Joanna Parkin, Policy Department C Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs
07/2011 Violeta Moreno-Lax: Seeking Asylum in the Mediterranean: Against a Fragmentary Reading of EU Member States' Obligations Accruing at Sea, International Journal of Refugee Law 23 (23)
29/06/2011 Letter to Frontex in relation to their study on unaccompanied minors in the migration process, by SCEP (Separated Children in Europe Programme), Save The Children and Human Rights Watch
22/06/2011 European Parliament's press release (EU doc. no. 20110622IPR22352) Frontex border guard teams and fundamental rights
2011 2010 Irish Refugee Council Annual Report - reports in particular abuse of migrants during joint return flights
18/01/2011 European Parliament: Question for written answer to the Commission by Georgios Papanikolaou (PPE) "Article in Der Spiegel on use of violence by Greek police to prevent illegal entry of immigrants into Greece"
30/09/2010 Association Européenne des Droits de l'Homme: The AEDH questions EU agency FRONTEX during the visit of the Delegation of the European Parliament, available also in French and Italian
2010 Violeta Moreno-Lax: Searching Responsibilities and Rescuing Rights: Frontex, the Draft Guidelines for Joint Maritime Operations and Asylum Seeking in the Mediterranean, REFGOV WP Series FR-28
09/2010 Amnesty International and ECRE: Briefing on the Commission proposal for a Regulation amending Council Regulation (EC) 2007/2004 establishing a European Agency for the Management of Operational Cooperation at the External Borders of the Member States of the European Union (Frontex)
25/03/2010 European Parliament, press release (EU doc. no. 20100324IPR71287) Migrants at sea: guidelines for EU border patrols
24/03/2010 "Frontex: la guerre aux migrants", conference organised by the Belgian League for Human Rights (Ligue des Droits de l'Homme belge). Link to the audio document
06/2010 Alain Morice & Claire Rodier: Comment l'Union Européenne enferme ses voisins - Les contrôles migratoires sous-traités aux pays-extérieurs
2009 JRS Europe: Comments by JRS Europe on the FRONTEX General Report 2009 and the proposed amendments to the FRONTEX regulation
04/2009 JRS Europe: Democratic controls for the administration of the Southern border: A proposal to the Members of the European Parliament attending the seventh legislature
10/12/2008 ProAsyl: Petition to European Parliament to "Stop the death trap at the European Borders!"
09/2008 German Institute for Human Rights: Human Rights at the EU’s common external maritime border: Recommendations to the EU legislature, by Ruth Weinzierl
03/2008 Asociación Pro Derechos Humanos de Andalucía: Derechos Humanos en la Frontera Sur 2007 (Human Rights at the Southern Border 2007),
12/2007 ECRE: Defending Refugees’ Access to Protection in Europe
24/09/2007 British Refugee Council and the European Council on Refugees and Exiles (ECRE): Joint response to Select Committee on the European Union Sub-Committee F (Home Affairs): Frontex Inquiry
Border control technologies
06/2012 Dirk Godenau: An Institutional Approach to Bordering in Islands: The Canary Islands on the African- European Migration Routes, Island Studies Journal, 7(1)
06/2012 Control(s) at the European Borders by the No Border network
11/2010 Quaker-ERSC: Security cooperation between the EU and Israel, see especially paragraph on "The European Security Research and Innovation Forum (ESRIF)"
03/2009 Andrew W. Neal: Securitization and Risk at the EU Border: The Origins of Frontex, Journal of Common Market Studies, 47 (2)
06/2008 Julien Jeandesboz: Reinforcing the Surveillance of EU Borders: The Future Development of Frontex and EUROSUR, Briefing Paper, Directorate General Internal Policies of the Union, Policy Department C Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs
Further documentation
22/08/2013 EU Fundamental Rights Agency: EU solidarity and Frontex: fundamental rights challenges, an excerpt from Fundamental rights and Europe's southern sea borders - full report and summary
07/2012 Kostas Infantis: Addressing Irregular Migration in the Mediterranean, Centre for European Studies
05/2012 Anti-Frontex days in Warsaw (Poland) organised by No Border
10/01/2012 Jean Jeandesboz: Contrôles aux frontières de l’Europe: Frontex et l’espace Schengen
01/2012 Sarah Wolff and Adriaan Schout: FRONTEX: More of the Same? Paper presented at the EUSIM – The Governance of Asylum and Migration in the European Union, University of Salford – Centre for European Security – 26-27 January 2012
05/04/2011 Letter from: Cecilia Malmström, EU Commissioner for Home Affairs, to: Mr Sándor Pinter, Hungarian Minister of the Interior
03/2011 Claire Rodier: La Petite Muette, Vacarme vol.55 (in French)
2011 Christian Drapier, "Frontex dans le contexte de la situation a la frontière gréco-turque", CERISCOPE Frontières
01/2010 Efthymios Papastavridis: ‘Fortress Europe’ and Frontex: Within or Without International Law?, Nordic Journal of International Law 79 (1)
2010 Theodoros Katsoufros, Frontex: Entre coopération intergouvernmentale au niveau des Etats membres et méthode communautaire
12/2009 Rambøll, Euroéval, Matrix Insight: Evaluation of the EU decentralised agencies in 2009 - Final Report Volume I, Synthesis and prospects, Evaluation for the European Commission (ABAC Contract No. 30-CE-0230814/00)
08/2009 Johannes Pollak & Peter Slominski: Experimentalist but not Accountable Governance? The Role of Frontex in Managing the EU's External Borders, West European Politics, 32 (5)
08/2009 Informationsstelle Militarisierung, Frontex - Widersprüche im erweiterten Grenzraum (Frontex - Contradictions in an enlarged border area)
2009 Frontex: Lecture critique, Maud Marie Boliveau, Master II d’Etudes Humanitaires Internationales Faculté de Droit d’Aix-en-Provence (Masters' Thesis)
06/2008 European Parliament - Briefing paper by Julien Jeandesboz, Policy Department C Citizens' Rights and Constitutional Affairs: An analysis of the Commission Communications on future development of Frontex and the creation of a European Surveillance System (EUROSUR)
05/03/2008 House of Lords European Union Committee (9th Report of Session 2007–08): Frontex: the EU external borders agency. Report with Evidence
01/2008 Human Rights Watch, World Report 2008 (see especially chapter on the European Union pp.383-396)
09/2007 European Centre for Constitutional Rights and Democracy, Dr. Andreas Fischer-Lescano, LL.M.
und Tillmann Löhr, Menschen- und flüchtlingsrechtliche Anforderungen an Maßnahmen der Grenzkontrolle auf See
23/04/2007 Sergio Carrera: The EU Border Management Strategy Frontex and the Challenges of Irregular Immigration in the Canary Islands, CEPS Working Document No. 261
03/2007 Hélène Jorry: Construction of a European Institutional Model for Managing Operational Cooperation at the EU’s External Borders:is the FRONTEX Agency a decisive step forward? CEPS Research Paper No.6
03/2007 Managing the EU's external frontiers: Lessons to be learned from Frontex's action in the Canary Islands by Miriam Mir (CHALLENGE, pdf)
2006 Jörg Monar: The Project of a European Border Guard: Origins, Models and Prospects in the Context of the EU’s Integrated External Border Management
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